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  1. #1
    Join Date: Apr 2011
    Location: EARTH
    Posts: 4,666

    The Alternating Conjugate Periodization Model



    The Alternating Conjugate Periodization Model
    http://www.elitefts.com/education/training/program-design/the-alternating-conjugate-periodization-model/



    The famous adage “If you fail to plan, you plan to fail” applies to strength training as it does to just about any other endeavor. Arriving to the gym without any plan will lead to haphazard results. Tudor Bompa, considered by many to be the father of periodization, puts it this way: “In training, nothing happens by accident but rather by design. Do you want to be successful? Plan for it!”

    Periodization is simply a way to organize or plan training into phases. Every lifter should map out his training to a certain extent, but you need to be careful about planning too far in advance because things may change. All it takes is one injury to disrupt your plans! A typical periodized plan for athletes involves the following sequence of training:

    Endurance → Hypertrophy → Strength → Power

    However, as you move from one phase to the other, the attributes of the previous phase(s) begin to decay. A more efficient approach involves the conjugate method, which allows you to train multiple motor qualities at one time.

    Al Vermeil is a proponent of the conjugate method. He’s also the only strength and conditioning coach to have world championship rings from both the NFL and the NBA, so when he talks, you should listen!

    Vermeil believes that all motor qualities should be trained simultaneously. Only the volume and intensity of each will vary depending on the needs of the athlete. When one component or method is being emphasized, the others must be reduced but never eliminated.
    Periodization Between Programs

    In general, three methods of periodization exist: standard, linear, and alternating. To improve strength over several weeks, research indicates that linear periodization is superior to standard periodization, and alternating periodization is superior to linear periodization.

    The standard method of periodization is appropriate for beginners during the initial stages of training because greater emphasis should be placed on form and technique over any other variable. Most individuals, however, will experience excellent progress with the linear method of periodization and even greater success can be achieved with the alternating method. The dashed lines in the figures above reflect rate of progress. The steepest slope, and thus the greatest rate of progress, occurs in the last method.

    Although research shows an improvement in strength with daily, weekly, and biweekly undulating periodization models, recent evidence from Germany suggests a longer period for significant morphological (i.e., big muscle) adaptations to occur when rotating between hypertrophy and strength/power phases. Individual rates of adaptation will ultimately determine the duration of each program, but, on average, a four-week period for most individuals works well.
    Periodization Within Programs

    I’ve combined undulatory loading with a conjugate approach of training to come up with the following models for maximum strength, hypertrophy, and muscular endurance. Power is also promoted in these models because the intent of all concentric actions is to perform them in an explosive manner.

    Using the parameters outlined above, each training session consists of three pairs of exercises—the A pair of exercises, the B pair of exercises, and the C pair of exercises. Depending on the training status and availability of the athlete, a two-day or three-day split may be used as outlined below.

    Two-day split


    Day 1: Upper body


    A1) Lying, seated, or standing press
    A2) Chin-up, pull-up, or row
    B1) Elbow flexion
    B2) Elbow extension
    C1) Wrist flexion
    C2) Wrist extension


    Day 2: Lower body


    A1) Squat or deadlift
    A2) Knee flexion
    B1) Split squat or step-up
    B2) Hip/trunk extension
    C1) Hip/trunk flexion
    C2) Ankle flexion/extension

    Three-day split


    Day 1: Upper body


    A1) Seated or standing press
    A2) Chin-up or pull-up
    B1) Elbow flexion
    B2) Elbow extension
    C1) Wrist flexion
    C2) Wrist extension


    Day 2: Lower body


    A1) Squat or deadlift
    A2) Knee flexion
    B1) Split squat or step-up
    B2) Hip/trunk extension
    C1) Hip/trunk flexion
    C2) Ankle flexion/extension


    Day 3: Upper body


    A1) Lying press
    A2) Seated, bent-over, or one-arm row
    B1) Elbow flexion
    B2) Elbow extension
    C1) Wrist flexion
    C2) Wrist extension

    You have a considerable number of exercise options at your disposal with this plan. Here’s an example of what a two-day split would like over four months using the alternating conjugate system.

    Of course, numerous modifications can be made depending on the individual and the situation. For example, if the athlete requires more scapular stabilization and rotator cuff work, I’ll substitute those movements for wrist flexion and extension. Just use the models above as a template, and use your judgment to make any necessary changes.
    Double/Triple Split System

    If you can barely squeeze in three or four workouts a week, don't read any further. Just do what’s outlined above and don’t piss your wife off anymore than you already do. For full-time athletes, students on summer break, and locked-out government workers as well as those who don’t mind occasional family disputes, consider a double split or even a triple split system for maximum results. Breaking up the training over two sessions (A exercises in the morning, B and C exercises at night) or three sessions (A exercises in the morning, B exercises in the afternoon, and C exercises in the evening) will produce better results, and catching a nap between those sessions produces the best results!

    Don’t think for a second that this plan is limited to only athletes of “non-subjective” sports. Physique competitors and anyone else who wants to look “swole” would also benefit from this approach. One knock against bodybuilders is that they rarely venture into the low-rep range, but doing so in a structured manner will help to break you out of a training rut and boost strength. By incorporating low-, moderate-, and high-rep training, you activate a wide spectrum of muscle fibers (slow-twitch type I and fast-twitch type IIA and IIB) for maximum growth.

    Take advantage of all the positive effects that periodization has to offer. Use linear loading within programs and alternating loading between programs. Make sure to use a conjugate method that trains various motor qualities in your workouts.


  2. #2
    Join Date: Apr 2011
    Location: EARTH
    Posts: 4,666



    References

    Alvar B, Wenner R, Dodd DJ (2010) The effect of daily undulated periodization as compared to linear periodization in strength gains of collegiate athletes. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research 24(S1):1.
    Baker DG, Wilson GJ, Carlyon R (1994) Periodization: The effect on strength of manipulating volume and intensity. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research 8(4):235–42.
    Bompa TO (1993) Periodization of strength: The new wave in strength training. Toronto, ON: Veritas.
    Buford TW, Rossi SJ, Smith DB, Warren AJ (2007) A comparison of periodization models during nine weeks with equated volume and intensity for strength. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research 21(4):1245–250.
    Hartmann H, Bob A, Wirth K, Schmidtbleicher D (2009) Effects of different periodization models on rate of force development and power ability of the upper extremity. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research 23(7):1921–932.
    King I (2002) Get buffed! Ian King’s guide to getting bigger, stronger and leaner (3rd ed.). Reno, Nevada: King Sports.
    Monteiro AG, Aoki MS, Evangelista AL, Alveno DA, Monteiro GA, Piçarro IDC, Ugrinowitsch C (2009) Nonlinear periodization maximizes strength gains in split resistance training routines. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research 23(4):1321–326.
    Poliquin C (1997) Advanced strength training certification program [Correspondence course]. Napa, California: Dayton.
    Prestes J, Frollini AB, De Lima C, Donatto FF, Foschini D, de Marqueti RC, Fleck SJ (2009) Comparison between linear and daily undulating periodized resistance training to increase strength. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research 23(9):2437–442.
    Rhea MR, Ball SD, Phillips WT, Burkett LN (2002) A comparison of linear and daily undulating periodized programs with equated volume and intensity for strength. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research 16(2):250–55.
    Tate D, Siff MC (2000) Supertraining and Westside strength camp. Seminar presented in Denver, Colorado.
    Vermeil A (2004) High performance workshop. Seminar presented at the Athletic Conditioning Centre in Ottawa, Ontario.
    Vermeil A (2004) Philosophy and training system for enhancing performance. Deerfield, Illinois: Vermeil’s Sports and Fitness.
    Willoughby DS (1993) The effects of mesocycle-length weight training programs involving periodization and partially equated volumes on upper and lower body strength. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research 7(1):2–8.
    Zatsiorsky VM (1995) Science and practice of strength training. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.


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